Bangladesh is a developing country in the third world. Overpopulation, poverty and unemployment are three major obstacles of being developed. In the absence of insufficient employment, proper skill and education, people have to select the way of self-employment for their survival. Thus, the informal economy emerged in Bangladesh as a means of subsistence. Although the informal economy is based on little enterprise with a low capital, it plays a great role in GDP(Gross Domestic Product) and GNP(Gross National Product). The informal sector accounted for more than the 40% of total gross value added of Bangladesh in2010. Sufficient documentation and opportunity can make it as the dictator of national development. Based on a labor force survey of ADB(Asian Development Bank), approximately 89% of the total number of jobs in the labor market are informal jobs. (Country report of Asian Development Bank,2010 ).But the significance of the informal economy is not known to all and cannot extend in lack of study and authority's concern. Therefore, the key objective is to assess and explain the scope, significance and socio-economic context of the informal sector through multidimensional analysis. Kamrangirchar has been selected as the study area.
Keywords: GDP, GNP, Black Market, Crime Economy, Underground Economy, Easy Entry, Dual Economy, Economic Flow, Information Flow, Enforcement Mechanisms.
RIVER EROSION AND THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHANGES OF VILLAGERS IN PADMAPUKUR AREA
The families of Padmapukur village who have been settled after the riverbank erosion are being the victim of dysentery. There has been a long change in their socio-economic situations. And these changes have happened within i.e. family, ancestral lands and households. But despite social changes, the inhabitants of this village are living in the eroded areas. As a result, they have to lead a miserable life even, thus the socio-economic conditions of the number of families are becoming worsen day-by-day. It has been found in the study that many people had in their different professions before the riverbank erosion and later became day laborer. Those families had two houses and a kitchen now they are living under a one room which is very close to the kitchen. Many of them have long been forced to change their professions and even relocate their positions. But these types of changes are still happening over there.The families of Padmapukur village who have been settled after the riverbank erosion are being victim of dysentery. There has been a long change in their socio-economic situations. And these changes have happened within i.e. family, ancestral lands and households. But despite of social changes, the inhabitants of this village are living in the eroded areas. As a result, they have to lead a miserable life even, thus the socio-economic conditions of number of families are becoming worsen day-by-day. It has been found in the study that many people had in their different professions before the riverbank erosion and later became day laborer. Those families had two houses and a kitchen now they are living under a one room which is very close to the kitchen. Many of them have long been forced to change their professions and even relocate their positions. But these types of changes are still happening over there.
Keywords: River Erosion, Socio-Economic Changes, Village Area.
HELEN MANNAN Researcher
PATRIARCHY ON GENDER SOCIALIZATION AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTHCARE: BANGLADESH PERSPECTIVE
This is a study on the women of Bangladesh particularly the rural women, their deprivation of rights and denial of reproductive healthcare services in a patriarchal society like Bangladesh. The study deals with gender socialization made by patriarchy and assesses the impact of patriarchy on women’s reproductive healthcare. It reveals that patriarchy maintains men’s control and domination over women through gender socialization and deprives women of their rights including reproductive healthcare. In patriarchy, gender socialization is used as a means of depriving women’s reproductive rights and healthcare. Women also internalize the patriarchic rules and justify their own deprivation of rights. Thus, all-grabbing patriarchy determines the fate of the country’s women— they are dominated, exploited and discriminated by men.
Proper administration of justice ensures the rule of law in the society through the court process involved the vital role of the witness to testify. Therefore, it is necessary to make sure the fairness of the witness free from all sorts of fear and feeling of telling the truth of the case and free from all kinds of biasness as the fruitful conclusion of the case sometimes entirely depends on the witness’s statement. In the article, it is strived for showing and explaining the position of witness in the judicial process, their categories and above all the process they are testified through different processes, stages and examinations with the limitations thereof and the court’s powers and duties to that respect under the conventional and islamic law. It also aims and intends to enumerate the significance of the statement given by the witness which pave the way for ends of justice.
One of the most barbarous civilizations in the history of the world was Arab civilization. The objective of their culture was love laurels, alcoholic drinks or gambling-like societies, inferior themes which is even more horrific than Homer's Iliad, and the Audese story of Sapcoulis. They used to do the worst things in the history of the world. In the name of culture in the society, war, violence, oppression, persecution, living graveyard to daughters, disputes among the tribes, and so on. At that time, Rahmatul alAlamin Prophet Mohammed (Pbuh) appeared on Arab world, the leader of the world humanity. And at the time, he has presented the Arab nation to a culture and civilization that is characterized by greatness of Islam as well as every aspect of the culture of Islam plays an important role in accelerating the welfare and progress of the people. This culture has some great features, which is based on Tauhid (Oneness of Allah), Resalat (Believe in Prophets), and the Akherat (Believe in Hereafter). When Muslim culture began to show people the hope of enlighten, people started to stand on one line in the society, forgot the hatred and animosity in the society, the followers of the ideology, the rage free, and the brotherhood became awakened between all, and then the Muslim opponents Westerners started many conspiracies against the non-endemic examples of Islamic culture. The conspirators started to trap different forms of eradication of Islamic culture. The Western countries in which they do not conspire directly but they have been trapped in a far-reaching conspiracy, in front of the Muslim countries. However, the main objective of the article is to highlight the role of cultural aggression in Western countries in the Muslim countries.
Keywords: Erosion, River, Adaptation Process, Local People.