The research focus on how the legislature functions as a representative organ with its oversight mechanisms exercised upon the executive during 2001-2006 in Bangladesh. The study finds that 185 bills were passed among which 78% of the total bills were enacted without proper scrutiny in the eighth parliament. This study has illustrated that 166 of the total bills were passed escaping the committee stage. It is also found that the eighth parliament made no fruitful effort of establishing parliamentary norms, culture and legislative compromise. The conflict of opinion between the treasury and opposition bench made it impossible to turn the ground into an effective institution to bridge their gap and to settle policy differences on crucial national issues by debate, discussion and negotiations. The research shows that the constant walkout and boycott of the parliamentary opposition helped the ruling bench to exert discretion. It is located that the opposition boycotted 223 out of the 373 working days. That means 60% working days of the 8th parliament were totally boycotted by the parliament. Finally, the research explores some dysfunctionalities and ineffectiveness of the 8th parliament which are the barriers of good governance in Bangladesh.
Keywords: Legislature, Good Governance, Effectiveness and Eighth Parliament.
Women’s economic empowerment is an inevitable part of development discourse. Excluding women from the mainstream development program, institutionalization of a sustainable development process is just unthinkable. Bangladesh has great entrepreneurial potential. Entrepreneurships enhance financial independence and self esteem of women. About 83% of enterprises in the sample were established between the years 2000-2007 indicating that young women are gradually becoming interested in business and entrepreneurial activities and women’s visibility in economic sector is increasing. Consequently, under successive Five-Year-Plans, women’s development initiatives have been gradually integrated into the macro framework and multi-sectoral economy to bring women into the mainstream of economic development and encourage potential women entrepreneurs realizing their business plans. Women’s contribution to household income and family welfare, increasing women’s participation in household decisions about expenditure and other issues leading to greater expenditure on women’s welfare. The purpose of this paper is to show empowerment of women through SHGs.
Keywords: Women Empowerment, Entrepreneurship, Self Help Groups, Micro Finance, Bangladesh.
CULTURE AND RELIGION ON WOMEN’S REPRODUCTIVE HEALTHCARE IN RURAL BANGLADESH
Health and healthcare of a community is largely determined by the culture, religion and behavior the people of the community hold. People’s culture including religion, values, beliefs and behavior during health and illness are important variables in studying health and healthcare. The present study has dealt with how and to what extent the culture, religion and practices of rural Bangladesh affect its women’s reproductive health and healthcare. Finally, the study tends to conclude that the rural culture and religion exerts significant negative impact on women’s reproductive healthcare.
This paper makes the case for why interventions by Local Government Institutions and non-government organizations are important tools for managing the risk of food security. The use of intervention is advocated to prevent and mitigate the impact of food insecurity related hazards and to cope with the impacts of its implications. Firstly, the paper explores the implications of food insecurity. Learning from the responses of a number of recent cases we plan to map the intervention mechanisms by Local Government Institutions and non-government organization. Secondly, the paper considers what Local Government Institutions and non-government organizations are doing to overcome food insecurity. Finally, recommendations are offered for more effective intervention mechanism.
Keywords: Food Security, Social Safety Net, Hardcore Poor, Local Government Institutions-NGO Intervention.
AN ANALYSIS ON INDIA-BANGLADESH BORDER KILLING
Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Science and Technology University.
Bangladesh and India, geographically two neighbouring friendly countries located in South Asia. The total length of the border is about 5138 kilometres with 4427-kilometre land border and 711kilometer water border. Bangladesh has 4,096-kilometer common border with India. Bangladesh has 32 border districts whilst India has five border provinces. Bangladesh and India both countries have bilateral issues from the emergence of them. The economic relations between the two countries is growing rapidly since the early 1990s. Amongst various issues between these two countries, border issue has come in the front line, because of the smuggling, human trafficking and border killing by the Indian Border Security Force (BSF). In 2013, US-based news agency “Global Post” opines that the borderline between Bangladesh and India is the worst borderline in the world. They are showing uncontrolled behaviour in the borderline by killing, abducting Bangladeshi people, violating human rights and offence relating to push-in etc. This is an interesting issue for research for finding out the reasons for the mass killing of civilian even though the two countries claim to be in a friendly relationship at least after the creation of Bangladesh.
Keywords: India, Bangladesh, Border, Killing.
Researcher, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh.
POPULIST RESURGENCE IN SOUTH ASIA: AN EMPIRICAL PERSPECTIVE
Envisioning of populism as the charismatic mobilization of mass people in pursuit of political power, this Element examines that populists burgeon where ties between voters and either bureaucratic or clientelistic parties do not exist or have decayed. This is because populists’ ability to mobilize electoral support directly is made much more likely by voters not being deeply embedded in existing party networks. This model is used to explain the pervasiveness of populism across the major states in South Asia: Pakistan, India, Bangladesh and Srilanka. It excerpts lessons from these South Asian cases for the study of populism.
Keywords: Populism, Clientelism, Political Parties, Democracy.
SAEYD RASHED HASAN CHOWDURY
Corresponding Author: Ph.D. Student, Department of Mysticism, Institute of Social Science, Ankara University, Turkey.
MUHAMMOD NASER NAFIS
Post-graduate researcher, Department of Islamic Studies, Faculty of Arts, University of Dhaka,
FOUNDATION OF RELIGIOUS LIBERALISM IN BANGLADESH: CONTRIBUTION OF BANGABANDHU SHEIKH MUJIBUR RAHMAN AND AWAMI LEAGUE
The Father of the Nation Bangabandu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (1920-1975) is the great architect and the immortal morphologist of a new map of independent Bangladesh. During his rule, he took various steps for the welfare of the country and the nation. He took realistic and effective measures to propagate Islam because of the economic, social and physical infrastructural measures in it, keeping in mind the religious sentiments and values of the people of the Muslim majority in Bangladesh. The outstanding contribution he has made to spread Islam, the promotion and establishment of Islamic values during his reign has become a rare example in the contemporary Muslim world. He was always trying to make Bangladesh a country of peace for all people of all religions. He is not only a great architect of an independent sovereign state but also, he is the architect of spreading Islam under government-sponsored Bangladesh. Especially by establishing the Islamic Foundation Bangladesh, he provided a solid institutional basis for the spread of Islam. He gave greater importance to all citizens who have equal rights regardless of religion and have been an assurance of all religions, which serves as a protector against intolerance when drafting the constitution of Bangladesh. However, the research tries to highlight how Bangabandhu contributed to reduce the religious hatred and extremism, fanaticism, and fundamentalism and establishing peaceful co-existence of various cultures and religions among the people of Bangladesh. Therefore, the result of my study shows how the role of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and his Awami league is establishing or has contributed in establishing status equality, love, promote religious cohesion, tolerance, and brotherhood among the masses and taught people to respect each other's religion, emotions, and practices in Bangladesh.
Keywords: Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, Awami League, Bengal Civilization, Peaceful Coexistence, Religious Pluralism & Tolerance, Different Cultures, Social Development.